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  • In addition, there is evidence that the poor are indeed heterogeneous and poverty is dynamic (people move in and out of poverty). Therefore, it is very important to continuously carry out research on poverty so as to create awareness and also inform policy makers on the nature and extent of poverty as this may obscure/distort effects of government poverty alleviation programs.

    In Kenya, approximately 45 % of the population leaves below the poverty line with 50% and 43% in rural and urban areas respectively. About 80% of Kenya’s population lives in rural areas and mainly depend on agriculture for food and income. Smallholder agriculture thus remains a major engine of rural growth and livelihood improvement and a pathway out of poverty. Understanding the factors that drive household movements in and out of poverty is extremely important for the design of poverty reduction strategies.
    Some of the research that the institute has carried out on poverty includes:

    • Pathways into and out of poverty for the rural households
    • Rural income, inequality and poverty Dynamics
    • Rural poverty dynamics, productivity and access to resources
    • Measuring income and potential for poverty reduction

    The Institute will continue to undertake research work on poverty in rural and urban areas to provide empirical evidence and guidance to policy makers in coming up with appropriate policy interventions/instruments that addresses heterogeneity and dynamics in poverty.

     
  • The agricultural sector is especially vulnerable to climate change as it is mainly dependent on rainfall and otherweather variables. With majority of the population depending on agriculture for their livelihood, climate change therefore poses a great threat on food security and may result in more households falling into poverty. Effective policy-making and design of strategies for mitigation and adaptation on farming depend fundamentally on plausible empirical evidence, seeking to establish the constraints to smallholder farmer’s resilience, and farmers’ perceptions about the threats of climate variability, and identifying opportunities and incentives that enable the farmers to overcome those threats.

  • Kenya faces one of the most challenging years when it comes to food security. According to the Food and Agricultural Organisation, food security is achieved

    when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.

    Even before the COVID-19 pandemic knocked on its door, the country faced a devastating desert locust invasion. This added to constraints posed by excessive rainfall experienced from October 2019.

    The worst food insecurity that Kenya has faced in recent years was in 2017 and 2008. The food production deficit and food prices were their highest ever in these years.

    The Kenya National Bureau of Statistics estimates that about 12 million people are food poor. These are people whose income doesn’t enable them to consume enough calories for a healthy lifestyle. Two-thirds of the food poor individuals are found in rural areas.

    Kenya relies heavily on maize, wheat, rice and Irish potatoes for food. It is estimated that the country imports about 90% of the total rice demand and about 75% of the total wheat demand. The rest is produced locally. For example, Kenya produces most of the total maize demand itself, importing only about 10%.

    A key challenge for the country is to raise productivity in the agriculture sector. This would not only ensure food availability, but potentially lift households out of poverty. To attain this, the country must reduce reliance on rainfed agriculture systems, use modern varieties and technologies by enhancing investments in extension systems, build resilience of farmers against the effects of climate change and variability, and improve agricultural market systems and infrastructure.

    The coronavirus outbreak adds to the challenge because markets have been closed and delivery of food has been disrupted.

    Immediate challenges

    The 2019/2020 season was favourable with most parts of the country receiving above-average rainfall. But above-normal rainfall continued through the harvest period, with adverse effects.

    The agriculture ministry now estimates that 10,000 hectares of cropland were destroyed during the long rain season alone. And post-harvest losses are expected to be higher than usual because grain didn’t dry adequately in the wet weather.

    In December 2019, vast swarms of desert locusts started arriving in the country. By March 2020, the Food and Agriculture Organisation categorised the threat to the country as dangerous, because the locusts continued to breed and form new swarms.

    This is the context in which the first case of COVID-19 was announced in March. Administrative measures have included the closure of produce markets and dawn to dusk curfews.

    These were highly disruptive for food delivery. This is because Kenya’s food system is heavily dominated by small, independent transporters as the link between producers and consumers. Produce markets, which are at the heart of distribution in urban areas, serve consumers and smaller retailers. This traditional informal system accounts for about 90% of the market.

    The closure of many of these markets in the urban and peri-urban areas, while a reasonable measure to avoid crowding, has disrupted food supply systems, especially for fresh produce. The impact is felt most in low-income urban households which rely on these informal food markets.

    The same cannot be said for the middle- and higher-income families who can buy fresh produce from supermarkets and grocery shops, which remain open.

    The ministry of agriculture has now agreed to categorise transport of foodstuff as an essential service, to improve food supply in urban areas. But this is not enough. If produce markets remain closed, supply systems still aren’t working fully. About 90% of fresh fruits and vegetables are sold through these markets. A further measure should be to ensure that markets remain open all day, although at reduced capacities.

     

    Read More Via https://theconversation.com/

  • With limited resources to address numerous challenges, impact assessment on interventions by both the government and development partners is emerging as a key component to establish the value for money on investment

    In addition, monitoring changes at the household, commodity and sub-sector, and macroeconomic levels can help inform policy interventions. Tegemeo Institute has continued to monitor key agricultural indicators to show trends and patterns over time. 
    The Institute had also undertaken various evaluations and impact assessments, some of which include.

    • Baseline and follow up surveys for programs being implemented by the government of Kenya, development partners and the private sector in agriculture and rural development sector
    • Impact assessment of programs on food security, increase in agricultural productivity and agri-business, extension services, improving rural income and livelihood  implemented by the government of Kenya
    • Impact assessment on agricultural productivity on the rural household income and poverty reduction on programs supported by the United State Agency International Development (USAID) Kenya mission
    • Developed an Income proxy model for the Title II funded programs under the United State Agency International Development (USAID) Kenya mission

     

  • This year, multiple shocks threaten the food security situation in the country. The worst desert locust invasion in the country’s history, floods, and now the COVID-19 pandemic are key threats this year. We discuss what this means for the country in this webinar hosted by Greenpeace AfricaClick here to view the webinar  

  • How the Country can Attain Food Security during the Coronavirus Pandemic

    Kenya faces one of the most challenging years with regards to food security. Although the country has faced food insecurity incidences in the past, the situation this year has been complicated by the Coronavirus pandemic. The country was already facing several threats to food security. First, the desert locust invasion of biblical proportion that spread quite rapidly between December 2019 and February 2020, was affecting crop and livestock production. Second, above-average rainfall experienced from October 2019 to January 2020 increased the likelihood of losses.

    The policy choice for the country is to attain self-sufficiency. However, the country is a net importer of the major staples consumed. Over the past decade, the key food security challenges were mostly about inadequacy. The most severe food security shock was between 2008 and 2009. During that period, the country was recovering from the effects of the post-election violence, when the global food price shock occurred in 2008. This was further complicated by unfavourable weather in 2009. In recent years, shocks were also experienced in 2016 and 2017.

    The current food security situation

    The country usually attains good performance in years with adequate rainfall as the majority of the producers are smallholders who rely largely on rainfed agriculture. The 2019/2020 season was favourable. Most parts of the country received above-average rainfall during the long- and short rains seasons. A good harvest was forecasted. However, above-normal rainfall was recorded through the harvest period. In the long rains season, it led to the destruction of cropland. The ministry estimates that 10,000 hectares of cropland were destroyed. The post-harvest losses, especially for cereal grains, is expected to be higher, this year, than usual due to inadequate drying of grain. In the past five years, it is estimated that the country loses an average of four million bags of maize post-harvest. In context, this is almost the entire short rains season harvest in a normal year. In addition, vast swarms of desert locust started arriving in the country and affecting the northern frontier counties from December 2019. The desert locust outbreak is complex to predict, and its mobility and feeding behaviour further complicate efforts to control it. It is estimated that swarms spread fast and can cover between 100 and 150 kilometres per day. An average swarm can comprise between 40 and 80 million locusts per square kilometre. Such a swarm can consume green vegetation (crops, pasture, fodder) in the amount that is equivalent to food enough for 35,000 people in one-day. By the end of February 2020, 17 counties had been infested, mostly the ASAL counties. Without the desert locust invasion, livestock farmers in the ASAL counties were likely to improve meat and milk productivity due to abundance of pasture. By March 2020, the FAO categorised the threat in the country as dangerous, due to continued breeding and new swarms formation that represents an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods at the beginning of the long rains season.

    How has the coronavirus pandemic affected food security?

    March 2020 also saw the country record its first case of Coronavirus. By mid-March, measures for self-isolation were announced, which included the closure of schools and encouraging people to work from home. More strict measures commenced towards the end of March, including the closure of produce markets in urban areas and dawn to dusk curfews. The last two were highly disruptive for the food systems. A key challenge now is how we continue to access essential foodstuffs in light of the measures to curb the spread of the disease. Majority of foodstuff, especially the highly perishable ones like fruits and vegetables are transported to urban towns at night when the temperatures are cooler. The closure of major markets in many urban and peri-urban areas, while a reasonable measure to avoid crowding, has disrupted food supply systems especially for fresh produce in urban areas. Also, the initial exclusion of food transporters in the essential services category meant delays were experienced in getting food to destined markets. The ministry of agriculture has already announced that transporters of foodstuff are now included in the essential services category to improve food supply in urban areas.

    The disruption has mainly been on the informal food supply chains. These supply chains primarily serve low-income and informal housing estates. Fruits, vegetables and other foodstuff arrive in the designated markets which act as wholesale markets. The small retailers then get their access through these large markets and distribute to small kiosks in the estates. Although innovations such as the model used by Twiga foods have been introduced to try and improve efficiency in these chains, the traditional model which involves many actors remains dominant.

    The measures put in place to contain the virus have a huge effect on the supply chains. For example, the reduced economic activity in the hospitality industry has a huge negative effect on food demand. Significant decreases in demand would usually lead to a fall in prices offered to producers. On the other hand, if supply is disrupted and consumers are unable to enjoy place and time utility, prices would rise in an ideal scenario to reflect the shortage. However, these are not ideal or usual times. An expectation is that in addition to the overall reduction in demand, we will observe shifts in demand. For example, where workers ate lunch in a restaurant near their office in the usual case, they will now consume the same from home if they are working from home. Another shift that can be expected is the increase in consumption of dry foods such as cereals and pulses which can be stored over a longer duration. Ideally, the market is expected to adjust itself, but this happens after a period of learning and so it is not instantaneous. Also, market panic will set in when demand and supply are not predictable. Already, there are numerous instances of panic-stricken shoppers buying everything they can afford trying to ensure that they have adequate stocks. To some extent, this can lead to an increase in prices for commodities that now seem ‘scarce’.

    What past lessons can lead to sustaining food security

    The number of persons infected in the country is expected to continue rising and peak in April or May 2020 depending on the effectiveness of measures taken to curb the spread of the disease. Already, the government has issued travel restrictions to citizens in hotspot areas. All the hotspots are in urban areas. Ensuring the movement of foodstuff and access in markets is not restricted is critical to minimise the adverse effects this can have especially for poor households in urban areas.

    A key challenge for policymakers is how to bring order in the informal system. Whereas it’s easy to develop solutions for formal markets such as the institution of quotas, it is very difficult to undertake this in the informal system. For example, in 2017, the government announced a price ceiling for a 2 kg packet of maize flour, however, in the informal estates, consumers paid up to twice the ceiling price due to repacking into smaller quantities.

    In the current situation, the government must put all effort into ensuring that there are no artificial demand and supply conditions. This can be done by developing tailored solutions to different market segments. For example, the middle- and higher-income dwellers access fresh produce from supermarkets and grocery shops. Innovations such as online shopping and home deliveries are already taking traction as people try to stay at home. This should be encouraged. Conversely, such solutions would not work for the low-income and informal housing estates, who largely access their foodstuff from the informal market system. This market segment was significantly interrupted in the first few days of the curfew.

    The business as usual scenario especially for the informal markets is not practical in the current pandemic. However, if produce markets remain closed, then there is still suboptimal functioning of supply systems. A further measure should be to ensure that markets remain open all days, although at reduced capacities. There is no doubt that overcrowding must be avoided. However, measures must be put in place to ensure that all people can access food. County governments and the ministry of health should work out measures that would facilitate some functionality of produce markets. This could include having different traders on different days, restricting the numbers of people at the market at any given time and ensuring that the safe distancing guidelines are followed. Although this would increase enforcement costs, the benefits in better access and less panic are much higher.

    The other key question is on the adequacy of stocks available in the country. Currently, the planting for the long rains season is underway. The ministry has sustained measures already put in place to control desert locusts which now are a threat to the new crop that farmers are establishing. There is also need to ensure that farmers have access to inputs they need for optimal production. The ministry has also announced plans to import about 4 million bags of maize. Earlier planning for any imports is highly commendable, especially taking cognisance that the pandemic has also disrupted global food supply systems. The ministry should step up monitoring of stocks, prices and distribution systems to ensure that the government can step in where the market mechanisms fail.

    At the global level, some countries in Eastern Europe have already enforced export bans on essential staples such as wheat. The bans are being put in place with an objective of ensuring food availability in the exporting countries. Learning from the 2008 food crisis, exports ban is counterproductive. A similar measure in 2008 caused panic in food markets resulting in spikes in food prices across the world. Countries such as Kenya will be at a disadvantage if such measures are repeated.

    Additionally, there is need to track both producer and consumer prices for food. Food security, especially in the urban areas in more about access and affordability. An economic downturn is expected in the post-pandemic period. Tracking prices ensures that the government is on top of things pertaining to the support that is required for vulnerable populations, both producers and consumers alike. The government must ensure that adequate safety nets will be in place to guarantee food security for households that will be devasted economically. At the same time, the government needs to continue providing support to producers, to the extent that is realistically possible, in order to improve supply and link them to markets for their produce, particularly through e-commerce channels, whose importance is growing.

  • Mostplayers operate at functional lines such as inputs, production, processing and marketing and provision of services like information, credit and extension. As a result, their efforts remain in a niche and are too marginal to have an appreciable sector-wide impact. Realizing the growth potential in agriculture will require concerted actions throughout the value chain, based on reliable information and strengthened collaboration between the public and private sectors. Moreover, the potential for growth in farm-level income and productivity in Kenya will be intimately tied to productivity growth at the various stages in the value chain.

    Many of Kenya’s sub-sectors face several challenges that need to be addressed given their strategic role in food security and income generation for many smallholder farmers and other players. The Institute will continue to address important policy and investment issues in key value chains as well as conduct value chain analysis in commodities that play an important role in alleviating poverty and ensuring food security and also promote the development of pro-poor value chains. 
    Tegemeo Institute has implemented extensive research on value chain for grains, horticultural crops and dairy, some of which include:

    • Maize, wheat, rice, sweet potatoes, sorghum, cowpea, green grams
    • Fertilizer and seed value chains
    • Small livestock (indigenous chicken)

     

  • John Olwande

    Before the COVID-19 pandemic, Kenya’s food system faced several direct and indirect challenges. The locust invasion was already destroying crops and pasture in parts of Eastern, North Eastern and Central regions and there were potentially higher than average post-harvest losses for grains because of enhanced rainfall during harvesting in the Rift Valley and parts of Western and Central regions. Besides, the country was experiencing a general economic decline, with the depreciation of the shilling making commodity imports more expensive and a general rise in price levels straining budgets for households. The manufacturing, hospitality and trade industries were especially performing poorly. The arrival of COVID-19 in the country, with the first case, confirmed on 12th March 2020, added to these challenges, and together they present a potential protracted crisis in the food system. Besides, the current floods in several parts of the country, which continue to claim human lives, destroy crops, livestock and property and damage infrastructure, compound the challenges.  While Kenya may not be new to some of these challenges, the COVID-19 pandemic is unique. It is affecting the entire globe of which Kenya’s food system is part and is thus likely to have a prolonged impact on the country’s food system. Therefore, it is important to scrutinize the potential short- and longer-term effects that the policy measures being taken to manage the pandemic will have on the food system. Alongside this, it is imperative to explore potential actions that can assure continued supply of adequate and affordable food of acceptable quality to the population.

    Kenya is implementing a range of policy measures to manage the COVID-19 pandemic. These include: restricted movement of people; countrywide dusk to dawn curfew; ban on crowds to observe social distancing; closure of institutions of learning, restaurants (now relaxed to conditional operations), bars and entertainment spaces, selected open-air markets in some counties; international passenger flights into and out of the country; and, most recently restricted cross-border movement of people and mandatory testing of truck drivers. While these measures are deemed to have helped or are expected to slow down the local transmission of the coronavirus, they are also likely to bear both immediate and longer-term undesirable impacts on the country’s food system in several ways.

    In the short-term, restricted movement of people directly disrupts operations of the food supply chain. Cessation of movement of people into and out of Nairobi and Mombasa, both large net importers of food in the country, and other counties (Kilifi, Kwale and Mandera), dusk to dawn curfew and restricted cross-border movement of people means a slower pace of trade in food and, therefore, disruption of the supply chain. While the movement of food and other cargo is not restricted, a substantial amount of food is often transported through passenger-carrying vehicles that travel both during the day and night with traders accompanying their goods. It means that traders have limited scope to travel to source their ware, transport them to the markets and sell. As majority of the population access through the informal market system, there is a direct negative effect through reduced supply of food in the market, especially perishables. Indeed, the disparity in prices of some food commodities during the first week of April 2019 and the first week of April 2020 signals distressed food supply in the market currently. For example, market information data from the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries and Cooperatives show that the wholesale prices of maize, beans and green grams in Nairobi were about 38% higher in April 2020 than in April 2019, while those of Irish potatoes, onions and eggs were 15-22% higher in April 2020 than they were at the same time in the previous year.

    Restricted movement of people, reduced operating hours due to the curfew, and limited operations of eateries constrain farmers’ access to markets. Indefinite closure of institutions of learning, restrictions on social gatherings and closure of some open-air markets to observe social distancing also add to farmers’ constrained access to markets, and further reduce food supplies in markets. These mean that a broad base of farmers are likely not benefitting from the prevailing higher prices.

    In the longer-term, the policy measures and other measures by various countries can affect domestic food production and supplies in several ways. First, the closure of institutions of learning without a definite time for opening them implies uncertainty to producers and traders that often supply food to these institutions. This uncertainty can affect farmers’ decisions to produce this season with the result of depressed domestic supply of food in the coming months. This is especially so for highly perishable commodities such as vegetables. Secondly, restrictions on gatherings to enforce social distancing may affect farmers’ access to extension services, which is a critical component in food production. Extension services are commonly delivered through group approaches, and so social distancing measures may hamper farmers’ coming together in groups to receive training and agricultural advisory services this production season. In addition, the government’s advisory that civil servants who are above 58 years old to work from home may hamper extension service delivery in areas where a good number of public extension officers are in that age category. Thirdly, logistical delays disrupt efficient operation of input supply chains and can affect agricultural production. Slower pace of shipping and distribution of imports due to delays in international shipping and domestic handling at the port, increased number of roadblocks for surveillance and screening in-country and restricted trading hours because of curfew can deny farmers timely access to critical inputs. It is reported that planting fertilizer supply was not much affected for this growing season since the policy response measures to contain COVID-19 came into effect when most farmers had already purchased planting fertilizers. However, the government was not able to implement the e-voucher input subsidy programme this season as had been expected. Further, a discussion with a fertilizer distributor in Nakuru revealed that demand for CAN fertilizer, the preferred for top-dressing maize, is higher than the available stocks and farmers are forced to substitute urea for it. This indicates that the distribution of the top-dressing fertilizer is being affected by delays due to these measures and may affect production. Finally, some countries have taken actions that affect food supply in the global market. The export restrictions in their various forms are contagious and can create a ripple effect that makes large international food exporters adopt them. If that happens, we are likely to experience volatility in the global food supply and prices. This will make it difficult for net importers of food such as Kenya to access the global food market, with adverse effects on the domestic supply system and stability of prices of food.

    What can Kenya do to ensure continued availability and affordability of food in the short- and longer-term?

    In order to cushion households from job losses due to COVID-19, and thus prop purchasing power in the economy, the government has designed social safety net packages that include cash transfers to low-income households and elderly persons, reduced income taxes for individuals and lowered value-added tax on all commodities. Taxes have also been lowered for businesses. These measures are expected to enable households to continue consuming and businesses to continue providing services and employing people. While the measures are appropriate, they may not be sufficient as their scale cannot match the losses in jobs and business revenues due to the pandemic. The government estimates potential job losses of half a million in the next six months and most of these will be in the informal sector. In addition, incomes of households that significantly depend on remittances from abroad and locally are also affected by the pandemic. These suggest a potential shift in demand for food as affected households adjust their consumption patterns in response to a reduction in income. We are thus likely to see increased demand for staple foods such as maize and reduced demand for meats and fish. Therefore, there is need to closely monitor domestic stocks of staple foods with a view to taking actions to promptly replenish them. In doing that, the country should also recognize that its traditional sources of staple food imports (such as Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, South Africa and Mexico) are also affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and so there is need to ensure that trade arrangements with these countries are effective to allow continued food imports should the need arise.

    Another short-term measure is to relax restrictions that affect food distribution. There is need to allow smoother transportation of food along the roads to reduce delays and support faster delivery of especially perishables to markets. This can be done through affirmative action that favours faster clearance of food-carrying vehicles through road checkpoints. The efforts by the Kenyan and Tanzania government to smoothen clearance along the Kenyan/Tanzania border is a case in point.

    State support to agricultural production this year should be enhanced to mitigate against long term effects. While it is evident that the public budget is constrained by the measures to manage the pandemic, enhanced support to agriculture should be at the centre of discussions on public spending. This may not be the time to rely on the global market for food supplies because of the potential for trade restrictions by countries, which may affect global supplies and prices. In addition, the relatively weak shilling will make food imports expensive, while the inflow of foreign exchange will decline due to reduced exports. Therefore, it would be a noble idea to plan well in advance to boost local production and prudently manage the output. There is need for measures to minimize post-harvest losses, provide market access to farmers, and assure an adequate supply of quality and affordable inputs and advisory services to farmers in the coming season.

  • Breakfast Meeting on Achieving Sustained Food Supply in Kenya: The Role of Selected Policy Instruments

    Date: Thursday, 24th October, 2013

    Time: 7.00am - 10.00am

    Venue: The Norfolk Hotel, Nairobi

    The need for increased food supply in Kenya cannot be over emphasized. In the past, food availability in the country has been erratic, fluctuating from year to year thus calling for prudent measures to ensure a smooth supply of food for the citizenry. Over the years, Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development of Egerton University has been involved in research and analysis which is aimed at informing stakeholders on the effects of various policies on food security.

    Recently the Institute conducted studies analyzing the effects of various policies and instruments that have been applied in response to challenges in the food and agricultural sectors. The studies carried out include: A Food Situation Assessment 2013, Advances in Kenya’s Policy on GMOs and its Effects on Food Security, and Implications of the Implementation of the VAT Act 2013 on Animal Feeds.  In light of this, the Institute organized a policy forum where findings from the studies were disseminated and discussed. 

    The policy forum was organized as a breakfast meeting on Thursday, 24th October 2013 at the Norfolk Hotel, Nairobi. It drew participants from a select group of stakeholders from the public and private sectors, research and academia, civil society, development agencies, and farmer organizations, among others.

    View the events video coverage below

    Presentations

    Policy Briefs

    Proceedings

    Date: Wednesday, October 31st 2012 

    Time: 7:00am - 10:00am 
    Venue: 
    Hotel Inter-Continental, Nairobi

    The need to contain food prices is critical for every nation and society. While ensuring affordability and accessibility of food for all, low food prices do also help contain inflation thus allowing for increased investment and growth. Kenya has been grappling with high food prices since 2008, a situation that has no doubt contributed to increasing demand for higher wages for workers. While various initiatives and instruments have been used to try and ensure affordable food, the outcomes/results have not been as effective as intended. This is evidenced by the high and rising food prices experienced today. This scenario underscores the need for continued dialogue and deliberation on feasible options that could present better opportunities for ensuring lower and stable food prices and food security for all.

    Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development, Egerton University and the Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System (ReSAKSS-ECA), held a breakfast policy forum on Wednesday, October 31st 2012 between 7:00am and 10:00am at the Hotel Inter-Continental, Nairobi. The forum brought together a select group of stakeholders from among others, relevant government departments, private sector and civil society to deliberate on the current state of play of food prices, domestic pricing policies such as the VAT bill, price support, and tariffs, and the role of cross-border trade in ensuring food security in Kenya. The analysis and deliberations focused on maize, which is the key food staple commodity in Kenya. It is expected that discussions at the forum will generate options for addressing the broad challenge of achieving food security in the country.

    Policy Briefs

    1. Policy Brief : Potential effects of the imposition of value added tax on agricultural inputs and sifted maize meal 
    2. Policy Brief : How can Kenya better manage maize prices? Effects of import tariffs, regional trade and producer price support

    Presentations

    1. How can Kenya better manage Food Prices? Effects of Value Added Tax , Import Tariffs and Producer Price Support 
    2. Policy options for Enhancing Intra-Regional Trade in Food Staples for Food Security
  • Breakfast meeting of the Status of agriculture sector after devolution to county government, 9th December 2014

    Date: Tuesday 9th December, 2014

    Venue: Intercontinental Hotel, Nairobi

    Introduction:

    The agriculture sector has over the years been the largest contributor to our country’s economic growth. In addition, the sector also makes a large portion of rural household incomes. In recent years, the sector has undergone a number of institutional changes - the most significant being the transfer of majority of the functions to the County Governments. Under the current constitutional dispensation, in the agricultural sector, the national government is mandated to deal with policy issues while county governments are responsible for crop and animal husbandry, livestock sale yards, county abattoirs, plant and animal disease control and fisheries.

    In an effort to understand the performance of the agricultural sector under the new governance structure, the Institute conducted an analysis on how the sector has adjusted to these changes and progress made thus far. The main objective of the study was to understand the organization and coordination within the sector, progress in implementation of programs and activities, and funding for the sector under the new dispensation.  It is in the light of this that the Institute organized a policy forum where key findings from this analysis were presented and discussed.

    Presentations

    The Status of the Agriculture Sector after Devolution to County Governments

    Events Coverage in the Media 

    Time: 7:00am - 10:00am 

    Venue: Hotel Inter-Continental, Nairobi

    The need to contain food prices is critical for every nation and society. While ensuring affordability and accessibility of food for all, low food prices do also help contain inflation thus allowing for increased investment and growth. Kenya has been grappling with high food prices since 2008, a situation that has no doubt contributed to increasing demand for higher wages for workers. While various initiatives and instruments have been used to try and ensure affordable food, the outcomes/results have not been as effective as intended. This is evidenced by the high and rising food prices experienced today. This scenario underscores the need for continued dialogue and deliberation on feasible options that could present better opportunities for ensuring lower and stable food prices and food security for all.

    Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development, Egerton University and the Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System (ReSAKSS-ECA), held a breakfast policy forum on Wednesday, October 31st 2012 between 7:00am and 10:00am at the Hotel Inter-Continental, Nairobi. The forum brought together a select group of stakeholders from among others, relevant government departments, private sector and civil society to deliberate on the current state of play of food prices, domestic pricing policies such as the VAT bill, price support, and tariffs, and the role of cross-border trade in ensuring food security in Kenya. The analysis and deliberations focused on maize, which is the key food staple commodity in Kenya. It is expected that discussions at the forum will generate options for addressing the broad challenge of achieving food security in the country.

    Policy Briefs

    1. Policy Brief : Potential effects of the imposition of value added tax on agricultural inputs and sifted maize meal 
    2. Policy Brief : How can Kenya better manage maize prices? Effects of import tariffs, regional trade and producer price support

    Presentations

    1. How can Kenya better manage Food Prices? Effects of Value Added Tax , Import Tariffs and Producer Price Support 
    2. Policy options for Enhancing Intra-Regional Trade in Food Staples for Food Security

    Proceedings

    Proceedings of a Breakfast Policy Forum on Managing Food Prices in Kenya: Domestic Pricing Policies and Cross-border Trade 

  • Through the Agricultural SectorDevelopment Strategy (ASDS), Kenya plans to increase productivity through investment in intensive use of already existing technologies such as fertilizers and seed. These technologies have great potential to increase on-farm productivity and enhance food security. The use of fertilizer and improved seed in Kenya remains very low indicating existence of a vast crop yield potential that can be exploited through promotion of increased use of these inputs. Promotion of these technologies will require identifying underlying constraints to their use and opportunities to promote use by farmers.

    Some of the researches carried out by the institute include:                                

    • Trends in fertilizer use and agricultural productivity
    • Growth in fertilizer consumption
    • Seed studies
    • Input intensification and off- farm work
    • Increase in agricultural competitiveness at the farm level
    • Determinants of agricultural productivity

    The Institute will continue to carry out research on input use and intensification while incorporating integrated soil fertility management to ensure efficient resource management and utilization for increased land productivity.

  • Policy research is aimed at offering policy guidance by providing timely empirical information and feedback on government interventions and all other stakeholders in the agricultural sector. To achieve this objective, various activities and studies focus on the following, among others: crop and livestock value chain analysis, analysis of food/commodity prices and productivity, use of fertilizer and improved seeds, including those of drought-tolerant crops,climate variability & change, and gender issues in agriculture.

  • Dissemination Workshops on Organizational Structures and Community Voice/Presence in Governance of Food Security Related Initiatives


    Date: March 2011

    Introduction

     Improving agricultural productivity is crucial in enhancing food security and accelerating pro-poor growth. Various functions in implementation of programmes/projects that are geared towards mitigating food insecurity and poverty reduction have been decentralized to the local level (district and below) as a way of increasing responsiveness, effectiveness and efficiency. This has been achieved by establishment of organs through which various functions are effected and by involvement of various stakeholders, including the farmers. To ensure that initiatives are/remain relevant to the needs of local communities particularly the poor and vulnerable, it is important to continually review the governance mechanisms that are in place at these local levels. A key objective of the agri-food systems project is to promote policies and governance mechanisms for sustainable agri-food systems. It seeks to contribute to the understanding of why current policies, institutions and governance mechanisms have not enhanced ability of the rural poor, women and the vulnerable to secure sustainable livelihoods, food and income security and a revitalized natural resource base.

     It is against this backdrop that Tegemeo Institute of Egerton University undertook studies in Mbeere, Kirinyaga and Nyandarua to establish the local level structures responsible for various food security-related initiatives, their composition and the existing linkages both upstream and downstream as well as horizontal linkages. In addition, the Institute captured the perception of local stakeholders on dimensions of governance that are relevant to making agri-food systems work for the poor and vulnerable namely, the satisfaction, participation and their influence. This study is within the broader project on “Making Agri-food Systems Work for the Rural Poor” being carried out in collaboration with other local and regional partners.

    Preliminary results show that the structure is still limiting farmers’ involvement in decision making, in resource allocation and in ensuring programmes and projects remain accountable. In addition, current funding levels seem to be curtailing the convening of various organs/committees and wider farmer representation. Farmers on the other hand seem to have minimal understanding of the projects in which they are participating in although there was an above average perception on satisfaction with benefit derived from the projects. There was also little knowledge on existing civil society groups, their agenda/mandate and influence on the committees.

    Tegemeo Institute organized for workshops to disseminate it findings and get feedback from the community. The workshops drew participants from farmer groups, civil societies and NGOs .

    Nyandarua North Workshop
    Venue : St. Martin’s Catholic Church Hall , Nyahururu
    Date : 9th March, 2011
    1. Making Agrifood System Work for the Poor-Proceedings of a dissemination workshop in Nyandarua North - PDF
    2. FOOD SECURITY INITIATIVES IN NYANDARUA NORTH DISTRICT - PDF
    3. ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURES AND COMMUNITYS’ VOICE IN GOVERNANCE OF FOOD SECURITY NYANDARUA NORTH - PDF
    4. Way forward matrix for Nyandarua North - PDF
    Mbeere South Workshop
    Venue : Christian Community Service (CCS) Mayori, kiritiri
    Date : 10th March, 2011
    1. Making Agrifood System Work for the Poor-Proceedings of a Dissemination Workshop in Mbeere South - PDF
    2. ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURES AND COMMUNITYS’ VOICE IN GOVERNANCE OF FOOD SECURITY - Mbeere - PDF
    3. Way Forward Matrix for Mbeere South - PDF
    Kirinyaga West Workshop
    Venue : County Hotel, Sagana
    Date : 11th March, 2011
    1. Making Agrifood system work for the poor-Proceedings of dissemination workshop in Kirinyaga West - PDF
    2. Food Security Initiatives in Kirinyaga West District - PDF
    3. ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURES AND COMMUNITYS’ VOICE IN GOVERNANCE OF FOOD SECURITY - Kirinyaga - PDF
    4. Way Forward Matrix for Kirinyaga West - PDF
  • Food insecurity is a threat to overall human well-being, as well as efforts geared toward economic growth and poverty alleviation. The concept of food security is multidimensional, encompassing food availability, affordability, adequacy, safety and quality. In Kenya, about 10 million people are said to be food insecure. Therefore food security continues to be an important national policy issue in Kenya. One of the government priorities is to make food available to all its citizens, yet it has had to grapple with several challenges including, low local supply, post-harvest losses, high prices on food imports and poverty among others. The country has in the recent years faced frequent and recurrent food security challenges resulting from, among other things, spiraling food prices, high input prices, prolonged and severe droughts, and high inflation rates. As a result, a large section of the population, and particularly vulnerable groups such as the pastoralists, internally displaced people, and the poor have had to grapple with inadequate access to food, sometimes resulting into severe hunger and loss of life.


    Tegemeo Institute recognizes the importance of food security in the development of the Kenyan economy. To this end, the Institute has conducted research that has informed policy makers on the short term, mid-term and long term policies instruments/intervention that would help to address food insecurity. As the country continues to develop, the Institute will continue to conduct research on food security to inform policy makers and other stakeholder on how to tackle this challenge. 
    Some of the research that has been carried out by the Institute includes:

    • Food security in urban households
    • Consumption and expenditure on key food commodities in urban areas 
    • Patterns and trends in household food insecurity
    • Effects of trade, tariffs and taxes on food security
    • Governance in food security initiatives
  • This entails informing public and private sector stakeholders about promising policy and investment opportunities to promote rural incomes and food security in Kenya. The relevant empirical information provided by the Institute will form a basis for meaningful discussions and interactions among researchers, policy makers,and other stakeholders. Consequently, such discussions will be based on reliable evidence based policy recommendations,which will inform and guide investment opportunities and lead to increased growth.

  • Tegemeo Conference 2008

     Date : 17 & 18 September 2008


    Venue: The Kenya School of Monetary Studies Nairobi, Kenya

    Tegemeo Institute organized a two days conference to disseminate the finding of its research work on the trends and drivers of the agricultural productivity diversification and poverty reduction over the last decade (1997-2007). This research output is based on data collected over the last 10 years using the Tegemeo panel household survey. The study has tracked trends in agricultural productivity, changes in technology adoption, household incomes, poverty reduction and inequality.

    Results of the study show that implementation of various strategies by the government has resulted in positive changes in agricultural and rural development in the country. Specifically, the results show increasing productivity of certain crops such as maize, tea and horticulture. Household incomes have also improved and poverty levels reduced. These changes however have not been uniform across commodities and agro-ecological zones. As the country embarks on the implementation of the Kenya Vision 2030, it is necessary to search for evidence of success in various sub-sectors and agro ecological zones to categorize the drivers of such successes. This would also facilitate identification of strategies that could be up-scaled or replicated and thereby contribute to the attainment of the agricultural sector's goal in the Kenya Vision 2030 strategy of becoming an innovative and commercially oriented modern sector.

    The Conference took place on the 17th and 18th September, 2008 at the Kenya School of Monetary Studies . The theme of the conference was Agricultural Productivity, Competitiveness and Rural Poverty in Kenya: Laying the Foundation for the Kenya Vision 2030. The conference output is in line with the vision of the agricultural sector in the Kenya Vision 2030 and the sector's strategic thrusts of increasing productivity through provision of widely accessible inputs and services to the sector operators to move agriculture to the next level and thereby lay the foundation for the attainment of the aspirations in the Vision.

    Participants of the conference were drawn from Government Ministries, producers, the private sector, Development Partners, Universities, and Policy Research Institutes, including the Alliance for Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA).

    The meeting was officiated by Dr. Romano M. Kiome Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture on behalf of the Kenya Minister for Agriculture Hon William Ruto EBS, MP.

    DAY 1
    1. Tegemeo Rural Household Panel Data 1997-2007
    Click to download the Presentation(ppt)

    2. Trends in Kenyan Agricultural Productivity: 1997-2007 by Betty Kibaara-Tegemeo Institute, Joshua Ariga-Tegemeo Institute, Prof Thomas Jayne-Michigan State University and John Olwande-Tegemeo Institute
    Click to download the Presentation(ppt)

    Click to download the Paper(pdf)

    3.Trends and Patterns in Fertilizer Use by Smallholder Farmers in Kenya, 1997-2007 by Joshua Ariga-Tegemeo Institute,Prof T.S. Jayne-Michigan State University,Betty Kibaara-Tegemeo Institute, and J.K. Nyoro-Director Tegemeo Institute
    Click to download the Presentation(ppt)

    Click to download the Paper(pdf)

    4.Agriculture and Livelihood Diversification in Kenyan Rural Households by Simon C. Kimenju-Tegemeo Institute and Prof David Tschirle-Michigan State University
    Click to download the Presentation(ppt)

    Click to download the Paper(pdf)

    5. Assessment of Kenya's domestic horticultural production and marketing system and lessons for the future by Prof David Tschirley-Michigan State University and Miltone Ayieko-Tegemeo Institute
    Click to download the Presentation(ppt)

    6. Rural Incomes, Inequality and Poverty Dynamics in Kenya, 1997-2007
    by Prof Tavneet Suri-MIT Sloan School ,Prof David Tschirley-Michigan State University,Dr Charity Irungu-Tegemeo Institute ,Raphael Gitau-Tegemeo Institute and Daniel Kariuki-Tegemeo Institute
    Click to download the Presentation(ppt)

    Click to download the Paper(pdf)

    DAY 2
    1. Summary of Key Findings by J. Nyoro Director Tegemeo Institute
    Click to download the Presentation(ppt)

    2. Food Policy Challenges in Eastern and Southern Africa in Light of the Current World Food Price Situation by Prof T. Jayne-Michigan State University
    Click to download the Presentation(ppt)

    3. The role of technology development in agricultural transformation in kenya by Dr. E. A. Mukisira Director Kenya Agricultural Research Institute - KARI
    Click to download the Presentation(ppt)

    4. Policies challenges and opportunities for producer organizations in Kenya by Dr. John K. Mutunga CEO - Kenya National Federation of Agricultural Producers (KENFAP)
    Click to download the Presentation(ppt)

    5. Public Sector Role in Agricultural Transformation in Kenya:ASCU 's Perspective By Dr. Wilson Songa, Agriculture Secretary, MoA, Chairman SRA-TC
    Click to download the Presentation(ppt)

    6. Role of Development Partners in Kenyan Agriculture growth By J.K.Kiara
    Click to download the Presentation(ppt)

    For more information on the conference, Please Contact Elizabeth on
    Tel: + 254 20 2717818, +254 734 658222, +254 720 895454
    Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

    Theme: Conference on Integrating Consumers in Policy and Program Agenda in Kenyan Agriculture

    Date: 19th April 2005

    Venue: Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi

    Speeches:


    1. Opening speech by Hon Kipruto Arap Kirwa, MP, Kenya Minister for Agriculture.(pdf)

    2. Opening speech by the Vice chancellor Egerton University.(pdf)

    3. Speech by Chief Agriculture business and Environment office, Usaid Mission to Kenya.(pdf)

    Papers:

    Paper 1. - Wp15-Effects of government maize Marketing trade Policies on maize Market Prices in Kenya by T.S Jayne, Robert J. Meyers and James Nyoro.
    This paper identifies the effects of NCPB's activities and government maize trade policy on maize market price levels and volatility. The paper also identifies the welfare implications and distribution effects of these policies 

    Download the paper (pdf)

    Paper 2. - Wp19-Staple Food Consumption Patterns in Urban Kenya: Trends and Policy Implications: Muyanga M, T.S Jayne, Gem Argwings Kodhek and J Ariga.

    Download the paper (pdf)

  • Venue: Ololulung’a Sub County Headquarters, Narok County

    Pastoralism is an extensive form of livestock production that constitutes the main production system found in rangelands, providing livelihoods to an estimated of 500 million people globally. Similar to other parts of the world, the country’s public policy has not always pursued policies that are sustain pastoralism. This has been due to misconceptions about pastoralism, competition from other land uses, demographic changes and urbanisation. As such, pastoral communities in Kenya, similar to other parts of the world, are now facing immense pressure on their land.

    Against this backdrop, Tegemeo Institute conducted a study that tracked how land tenure in pastoralist communities had changed. In addition, we were able to compare this evolution with what is happening to pastoral communities in other parts of the world with a view of learning from these experience and drawing lessons that will help pastoral communities sustain their productive systems. We have drawn lessons through interaction with experts from Sub Saharan Africa and Latin America. The findings from this work are now ready to be disseminated as we continue to engage in the debate for sustaining pastoralism. It is in the light of this that the Institute is organizing a workshop where key findings from this study will be presented and discussed. The workshop will brought together government bureaucrats, pastoral communities and other stakeholders working with pastoral communities.

    Workshop Proceedings

    See more out put from the Ella Project 

  • Tegemeo participated at the inaugrual East Africa Evidence to Action (ICED) Conference held on 24th-25th May 2017. 

    Various speakers and panelists provided in-depth insight as well as practical tools that will enhance evidence based and data informed Policy and Practice in Africa.

    Many topics were covered during this inaugural conference and in line with Tegemeo's mandate of disseminating its research findings to various stakeholders, we participated in various sessions. The Institute Director Dr. Mary Mathenge led a panel of other experts from the Institute comprising of:  

    1. Dr. Mercy Kamau, MLE Director, Tegemeo Institute
    2. Dr. Lilian Kirimi, Research Director, Tegemeo Institute
    3. Dr. Timothy Njagi, M&E Specialist, Tegemeo Institute
    4. Dr. Miltone Ayieko, Outreach, Communication & Partnerships Coordinator, Tegemeo Institute

    The panel of experts discussed keys to translating Evidence to Policy and Practice: Lessons and Experiences from Agricultural Policy Research

    Besides the Tegemeo team moderating in various sessions and exhibiting part of its research products, Dr. Timothy Njagi & Dr. Mary Mathenge presented at a break out session themed Adoption of Improved Technology. Their presentation was on lessons drawn from a study on Adoption of Technology Bundles among Smallholder Maize Farmers in Kenya Evaluating Socioeconomic Impacts of Mid-altitude Maize Hybrid Varieties in KenyaDr. Mercy Kamau and Dr. Fred Bagamba presented at yet another break out session themed: Adoption of Improved Technology. Their presentation was onImproving food security through the introduction of new seed varieties: How effective are demonstration plots and field days in influencing farmers adoption behavior towards new maize and bean varieties?

    The conference was held at Park Inn Radisson Blu, Nairobi.

  • Date :  14th July 2015

    Time : 7.00am - 10.30am

    Venue : PanAfric Hotel

    Introduction

    Maize production in Kenya has continuously faced a number of challenges that have hampered food availability and access. These challenges include, low productivity, high input costs, post-harvest losses, climate variability and change, among others. To address the challenge of high input costs, the Government launched an aggressive programme of providing subsidized fertilizer to farmers. It was expected that this programme, coupled with other interventions, would bring down the costs of maize production and consequently maize flour prices. In addition, the Government is investing in large scale irrigated maize production in order to reduce reliance on rain-fed agriculture, and thus deal with the problem of perennial maize shortage.

    Given the strategic role that maize plays in food security and household income, it is imperative to have continued assessment and deliberation on feasible options that could lower costs of production and hence ensure competitiveness in production and lower food prices. In light of this, Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development, Egerton University has been carrying out regular/annual assessment of production costs for maize to help inform on this debate. We have recently assessed the cost of production for the 2014/15 cropping year under different production systems and fertilizer access regimes, the viability of irrigated maize, and the status of the current food situation in Kenya.

    The following findings from these studies were shared with stakeholders:

    Presentations

    1. Cost of Maize Across Different Systems and Regions in Kenya: Implications for Food Security and Pricing

    2. Can Irrigation be an Answer to Increased Maize Production snd Food Security in Kenya?

    3. Trends in maize grain and flour prices: Implications for food security

    Other downloads available

    Proceedings

    Press releases

  • Date :  10th October 2016

    Time : 7.00am - 10.30am

    Venue : PanAfric Hotel

    Introduction

    Kenya remains largely a net importer of key food staples namely maize, wheat and rice. On average, the country imports over 50% percent of its demand for rice and wheat and 7-10 percent of maize.  This is despite favorable conditions for production thus implying an unexploited potential and/or lack of sufficient policy support for increased production.

    In Kenya, majority of producers of maize and rice are small scale farmers who also depend on these staples for their livelihoods. In order to ensure food security and improve household incomes, it is important to continuously assess and monitor the profitability and competitiveness of these key staples in the country. This will enable identification of key challenges and opportunities for increased production and areas of policy intervention.

    Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development, Egerton University conducted an assessment of the costs of production for maize and rice for the 2015/16 cropping year and the current status of food situation in the country. The findings of this assessment were shared and discussed in a stakeholders’ breakfast forum to elicit feedback and way forward on feasible options that could improve on the profitability and competitiveness in production. Such interventions are necessary for ensuring lower food prices for consumers.

    The following findings from these studies were shared with stakeholders:

    Presentations

    1. Meeting Introduction and Objectives

    View a brief video intro on the same here...

    2. Consumption Patterns of Major Staples in Rural & Urban areas of Kenya

    View a brief video on the Consumption patterns here... 

    3. Cost of Maize and Rice Production in Small and Large Scale Systems, 2015 

    View a brief video on the cost of rice and maize production here... 

    4. Kenya’s Maize Crop Prospects and Food Situation

    View a brief video on the food situation here... 

    View more videos here... 

    Insights from Narok County 

    Insights from a largescale rice producer

    Voices from Ahero farmers

    Voices from Muluwa rice farmers