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  • Course on Monitoring Learning & Evaluation

    Course on Monitoring Learning & Evaluation

    Tegemeo's Director Dr. Miltone Ayieko welcomes participants to the five day training, 9-13 Oct 2017

  • Course on Monitoring Learning & Evaluation

    Course on Monitoring Learning & Evaluation

    Tegemeo's MLE Unit Director introduces participants to the five day training, 9-13 Oct 2017

  • Course on Monitoring Learning & Evaluation

    Course on Monitoring Learning & Evaluation

    Dr Rosern Rwampororo, one of the trainers, takes the participants through the laid out course content, 9-13 Oct 2017

  • Course on Monitoring Learning & Evaluation

    Course on Monitoring Learning & Evaluation

    Participants during interactive sessions, 9-13 Oct 2017

  • Course on Monitoring Learning & Evaluation

    Course on Monitoring Learning & Evaluation

    Participants during interactive sessions, 9-13 Oct 2017

  • Course on Monitoring Learning & Evaluation

    Course on Monitoring Learning & Evaluation

    Participants during interactive sessions, 9-13 Oct 2017

  • Course on Monitoring Learning & Evaluation

    Course on Monitoring Learning & Evaluation

    Dr. Tesfaye Beshah, one of the trainers, takes the participants through the laid out course content, 9-13 Oct 2017

  • Course on Monitoring Learning & Evaluation

    Course on Monitoring Learning & Evaluation

    Participants during interactive sessions, 9-13 Oct 2017

  • Course on Monitoring Learning & Evaluation

    Course on Monitoring Learning & Evaluation

    Participants group photo, 9-13 Oct 2017

  • ANNUAL COP SURVEY RELEASED, 5th October 2017

    ANNUAL COP SURVEY RELEASED, 5th October 2017

    Participants at the breakfast forum held to share the 2017/2018 cropping year Cost Of Production Findings

  • ANNUAL COP SURVEY RELEASED, 5th October 2017

    ANNUAL COP SURVEY RELEASED, 5th October 2017

    Participants at the breakfast forum held to share the 2017/2018 cropping year Cost Of Production Findings

  • ANNUAL COP SURVEY RELEASED, 5th October 2017

    ANNUAL COP SURVEY RELEASED, 5th October 2017

    Participants at the breakfast forum held to share the 2017/2018 cropping year Cost Of Production Findings

  • ANNUAL COP SURVEY RELEASED, 5th October 2017

    ANNUAL COP SURVEY RELEASED, 5th October 2017

    Tegemeo Director Dr. Miltone Ayieko addresses journalists during the breakfast forum held to share the 2017/2018 cropping year Cost Of Production Findings

  • ANNUAL COP SURVEY RELEASED, 5th October 2017

    ANNUAL COP SURVEY RELEASED, 5th October 2017

    Tegemeo Director Dr. Miltone Ayieko addresses journalists during the breakfast forum held to share the 2017/2018 cropping year Cost Of Production Findings

  • ANNUAL COP SURVEY RELEASED, 5th October 2017

    ANNUAL COP SURVEY RELEASED, 5th October 2017

    Kevin Onyango, Tegemeo Research Associate addresses participants of the breakfast forum held to share the 2017/2018 cropping year Cost Of Production Findings

  • ANNUAL COP SURVEY RELEASED, 5th October 2017

    ANNUAL COP SURVEY RELEASED, 5th October 2017

    Dr. Dennis Otieno, Tegemeo's Research Fellow addresses participants of the breakfast forum held to share the 2017/2018 cropping year Cost Of Production Findings

  • ANNUAL COP SURVEY RELEASED, 5th October 2017

    ANNUAL COP SURVEY RELEASED, 5th October 2017

    Dr. Tim Njagi, Tegemeo's Research Fellow addresses participants of the breakfast forum held to share the 2017/2018 cropping year Cost Of Production Findings

  • Tegemeo Signs MOU with EAGC, 3rd July 2017

    Tegemeo Signs MOU with EAGC, 3rd July 2017

    The Memorandum Of Understanding creates a framework for collaboration that will improve research and analysis of agricultural trade, policy and advocacy.

  • Tegemeo Signs MOU with EAGC, 3rd July 2017

    Tegemeo Signs MOU with EAGC, 3rd July 2017

    The Memorandum Of Understanding creates a framework for collaboration that will improve research and analysis of agricultural trade, policy and advocacy.

  • Tegemeo Signs MOU with EAGC, 3rd July 2017

    Tegemeo Signs MOU with EAGC, 3rd July 2017

    The Memorandum Of Understanding creates a framework for collaboration that will improve research and analysis of agricultural trade, policy and advocacy.

  • Tegemeo Signs MOU with EAGC, 3rd July 2017

    Tegemeo Signs MOU with EAGC, 3rd July 2017

    The Memorandum Of Understanding creates a framework for collaboration that will improve research and analysis of agricultural trade, policy and advocacy.

  • Tegemeo Signs MOU with EAGC, 3rd July 2017

    Tegemeo Signs MOU with EAGC, 3rd July 2017

    The Memorandum Of Understanding creates a framework for collaboration that will improve research and analysis of agricultural trade, policy and advocacy.

  • Tegemeo @ Egerton University 11th Conference

    Tegemeo @ Egerton University 11th Conference

    Part of Tegemeo staff take part in the exhibition at the Egerton University 11th International Conference, 29th-31st March 2017, Njoro Nakuru

  • Tegemeo @ 8th AfrEA International Conference

    Tegemeo @ 8th AfrEA International Conference

    Tegemeo Institute's Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) - Unit hosts a Social Networking Event at the Conference

  • Tegemeo @ 8th AfrEA International Conference

    Tegemeo @ 8th AfrEA International Conference

    Guests have a good time at the Social Networking Event hosted by Tegemeo Institute's Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) - Unit

  • Tegemeo @ 8th AfrEA International Conference

    Tegemeo @ 8th AfrEA International Conference

    The MLE unit team welcomes Dr. Florence Etta at the social dinner hosted by Tegemeo Institute's Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) - Unit

  • Tegemeo @ 8th AfrEA International Conference

    Tegemeo @ 8th AfrEA International Conference

    Tegemeo Institute's Measurement Learning & Evaluation (MLE) Unit hosts a pre-conference workshop on Agricultural Data & Technology use, Kampala, Uganda Conference Dates - 27th–31st March, 2017

  • Tegemeo @ 8th AfrEA International Conference

    Tegemeo @ 8th AfrEA International Conference

    Dr. Mercy Kamau- Director MLE unit giving a synopsis of the of the Institute MLE agenda during the Social Networking Dinner

  • Tegemeo @ 8th AfrEA International Conference

    Tegemeo @ 8th AfrEA International Conference

    Tegemeo Institute's Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) Unit hosts a pre-conference workshop on Agricultural Data & Technology use, Kampala, Uganda Conference Dates - 27th – 31st March, 2017

  • Tegemeo @ 8th AfrEA International Conference

    Tegemeo @ 8th AfrEA International Conference

    Media interviews the Director, Tegemeo Institute during the Social Dinner hosted by the Institutes MLE Unit

  • Dr. Mary Mathenge Director Tegemeo @ NMG Forum

    Dr. Mary Mathenge Director Tegemeo @ NMG Forum

    Tegemeo Institute took part at the Inaugural Food Security and Water Nation Media Group Leadership Forum, 3rd April 2017

  • Tegemeo @ Egerton University 11th Conference

    Tegemeo @ Egerton University 11th Conference

    Egerton University VC Prof Rose Mwonya opens the 11th International Conference, 29th-31st March 2017, Njoro Nakuru

  • Tegemeo @ Egerton University 11th Conference

    Tegemeo @ Egerton University 11th Conference

    Tegemeo's Kevin Onyango presents at the 11th International Conference, 29th-31st March 2017, Njoro Nakuru Tegemeo Institute took part at the Egerton University 11th International Conference, 29th-31st March 2017

  • Tegemeo @ 8th AfrEA International Conference

    Tegemeo @ 8th AfrEA International Conference

    Tegemeo Institute's Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) - Unit hosts a pre-conference workshop on Agricultural Data & Technology use, Kampala, Uganda Conference Dates - 27th – 31st March, 2017

  • Tegemeo hosts Ella Workshop, 16th March 2017

    Tegemeo hosts Ella Workshop, 16th March 2017

    The Workshop focused on Land Tenure and Sustainable Pastoralist Systems and was held in Ololulung'a, Narok County

  • Tegemeo hosts Ella Workshop, 16th March 2017

    Tegemeo hosts Ella Workshop, 16th March 2017

    David Muntet, a pastoralist and beneficially of the ELLA Study Tour held in November 2016 shares lessons and experiences with the workshop participants.

  • Tegemeo Hosts Seed Conference, 8th February 2017

    Tegemeo Hosts Seed Conference, 8th February 2017

    Theme: Enhancing Smallholder Productivity in Kenya: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial of New Seed Varieties, 8th February, 2017

  • Tegemeo Hosts Seed Conference, 8th February 2017

    Tegemeo Hosts Seed Conference, 8th February 2017

    Conference Theme: Enhancing Small-holder Productivity in Kenya: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial of New Seed Varieties

  • Tegemeo Hosts Seed Conference, 8th February 2017

    Tegemeo Hosts Seed Conference, 8th February 2017

    Conference Theme: Enhancing Small-holder Productivity in Kenya: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial of New Seed Varieties

  • Tegemeo at the Mau - Egerton Cross Country 2017

    Tegemeo at the Mau - Egerton Cross Country 2017

    Egerton University VC Prof. Rose Mwonya flags off the university staff race

  • Tegemeo at the Mau - Egerton Cross Country 2017

    Tegemeo at the Mau - Egerton Cross Country 2017

    Egerton University VC Prof. Rose Mwonya Crosses the finishing line

  • Tegemeo at the Mau - Egerton Cross Country 2017

    Tegemeo at the Mau - Egerton Cross Country 2017

    Part of the Tegemeo Staff Team at the "Run for the Mau Event"

  • Tegemeo Hosts 3rd Annual ReNAPRI Conference 2016

    Tegemeo Hosts 3rd Annual ReNAPRI Conference 2016

    Conference theme: “Anticipating Africa’s Agricultural Transformation Pathways in the Context of Climate Change: Lessons from the Current Regional Drought”

  • Tegemeo Hosts 3rd Annual ReNAPRI Conference 2016

    Tegemeo Hosts 3rd Annual ReNAPRI Conference 2016

    Conference theme: “Anticipating Africa’s Agricultural Transformation Pathways in the Context of Climate Change: Lessons from the Current Regional Drought”

  • Tegemeo Hosts 3rd Annual ReNAPRI Conference 2016

    Tegemeo Hosts 3rd Annual ReNAPRI Conference 2016

    Conference theme: “Anticipating Africa’s Agricultural Transformation Pathways in the Context of Climate Change: Lessons from the Current Regional Drought”

  • TEGEMEO COST OF PRODUCTION ASSESMENT 2016

    TEGEMEO COST OF PRODUCTION ASSESMENT 2016

    Establishing Cost of Rice Production Year 2015

  • Tegemeo Cost of Production Assessment 2016

    Tegemeo Cost of Production Assessment 2016

    Tegemeo Hosts Breakfast Meeting on the Competitiveness of Key Food Staples in Kenya: Role of Production Costs and Pricing, 10 October 2016

  • Tegemeo Cost of Production Assessment 2016

    Tegemeo Cost of Production Assessment 2016

    Tegemeo Hosts Breakfast Meeting on the Competitiveness of Key Food Staples in Kenya: Role of Production Costs and Pricing, 10 October 2016

  • Tegemeo Cost of Production Assessment 2016

    Tegemeo Cost of Production Assessment 2016

    Tegemeo Hosts Breakfast Meeting on the Competitiveness of Key Food Staples in Kenya: Role of Production Costs and Pricing, 10 October 2016

Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development is a policy research institute under the Division of Research and Extension of Egerton University.

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Collective land tenure is under threat in Kenya. Why it needs to be protected

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Pastoralism is the main production system practised by communities who live in range lands and dry lands which are usually arid or semi-arid. But pastoral communities are facing increasing pressure on their land.

Traditionally, pastoral communities have accessed and used land collectively, using customary laws and norms to manage the land. For example, the Maasai community in Kenya believed that land was a birth right accessible to everyone. No individual could restrict access over a section of land. In addition, elders of the community would determine grazing patterns, when to migrate, and would negotiate with neighbouring communities when they migrated to foreign land.

But a combination of factors has upset this equilibrium. Pressures stem from global trends such as demographic change, urbanisation, competing land use and misconceptions about pastoralism by policymakers.

Public policy has supported the individualisation and privatisation of land tenure in these areas. The declared aim is to promote investments in land and increase land productivity. As a result communities have been forced to change because of urbanisation and competition for the use of land from activities such as mining.

These pressures are similar in pastoral communities across the world. A comparison of pastoral communities in Kenya and Peru illustrates this, even though they live in very different terrain and keep different livestock. In Kenya, pastoral communities reside in low lands characterised by high temperature and low rainfall. In Peru they’re on mountain highlands that are extremely cold and have very little rain. Cattle, sheep, goats and camels are common in Kenya, while Alpacas and llamas are common in Peru.

It’s important that these pastoral communities and their practices are protected. The maintenance of collective land tenure will aid and sustain their productive systems. This shouldn’t be too difficult given that a large majority of pastoral communities reside inland where alternative use is limited.

Public policy needs to be reoriented to support pastoralism by providing and sharing evidence on what works for and how current policies affect these communities.

Common denominators

Pastoralists in both countries face growing pressure over their land due to increasing individualisation of land tenure. Both use collective land tenure and common sustainable practices. These include mobility and mosaic grazing, split grazing, genetic improvement and herd size management.

Mobility refers to the practice of moving animals based on resource availability, mainly pastures and water. It allows pastoral communities to access fresh pasture and water by moving to resource-surplus areas. While this is supported under collective land tenure, it’s constrained where land is under individual tenure.

Mosaic system of grazing consists of spatial combination of intensively grazed and underutilised patches where land is grazed intensively, or superficially or not grazed at all. Mobility and mosaic grazing are important for regeneration of resources such as pasture and help maintain biological diversity. Mosaic grazing also aids in control of overgrazing, pasture planning and management.

Split grazing on the other hand is where animals are separated based on sex, age and breed. This helps in genetic improvement of breeds and control of over breeding. However, this strategy requires sufficiently diverse pastures as well as labour resources. As such, it’s constrained under individual land tenure, where land sizes are smaller.

Finally, genetic improvement refers to a strategy for adapting livestock to the environment while at the same time boosting production of meat or milk. These are important for the sustainable utilisation of the land.

Mobility and mosaic grazing are practised by communities in both regions. An example in Kenya is the Borana community in Isiolo County. The community is organised in dheedas. These are grazing clusters, which independently set rules for pasture and water management. Each dheeda has a grazing plan where land is accessed depending on the season – whether rainy, dry, or severe drought. In the Peruvian Altiplano, access to extensive and varied pastures means family condominiums and pastoral communities move their herds according to seasonal feed availability.

However, as the land tenure becomes individualised, these strategies can no longer be practiced. For example, in Kajiado County, once individuals bought what was once community land, they quickly fenced it off to limit access. Pastoral communities who had free accesses to all the land before land fragmentation now accessed less land.

 

Pastoral communities in Kenya and Peru also practise split grazing. For pastoralists who have genetically improved their breed, this is important to maintain purity. Under individual land tenure, genetic breed improvement is enforced due to spatial constraints.

Possible interventions

To improve productivity, genetic breed improvement becomes necessary. Communities in Peru have improved alpaca breeds to increase wool production. Similarly, some communities in Kenya have adopted the Sahiwal breed for cattle and Dorper breed for sheep.

A major difference is that under collective land tenure, a number of breeds are easily managed. Different animal breeds have different pasture requirements. As such, making use of heterogeneous resources available aids pastoralist diversify their risk.

However, managing the number of breed can increase labour costs under individual land tenure. A herder in individual land tenure will manage the herd size to suit their land holding. During dry spells, the herder will sell off animals and remain a sustainable herd. This ensures sustainable use of available resources.

Community mechanisms to manage and utilise land need to be supported and ensure that they can enforce customary laws over their land. The government and civil society organisations are now working with communities through off take programmes to manage their herd sizes. However, since communities under collective land tenure can migrate, they sub-optimally utilise this strategy.

Breaking the trend of individualisation of land tenure in pastoralist areas will help sustain their productive systems. In addition, there’s a need to strengthen community institutions that manage land accessed collectively. In Kenya, the recently enacted Community Land Act, 2016 seeks to achieve this.

See Coverage on The Conversation

Collective land tenure is under threat in Kenya. Why it needs to be protected

http://theconversation.com/collective-land-tenure-is-under-threat-in-kenya-why-it-needs-to-be-protected-74393 

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